Temperature Requirements for Development of the Jack Pine Bud worm (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) and Two of Its Parasitoids (Hymenoptera)
Rates of development at various constant temperatures were determined for immature stages of jack pine bud worm, Choristoneura pinus pinus Freeman, and two parasitoids of its overwintering stage, Apanteles fumiferanae (Viereck) and Glypta fumi-feranae Viereck. Jack pine bud worm larvae (JPB) required 416 degree-days (DD) above 7.5 for development from emergence of second instars to pupation, while the pupal stage required 129 DD above 8.0. The second through the seventh instars required 70.8, 54.5, 55.5,58.7,72.8, and 115.3DD above 7.5, respectively. Males developed faster than females during the fifth, sixth, and seventh instars, but females developed faster during the pupal stage. This resulted in synchronized emergence of adults of each sex. Parasitism by A. fumiferanae (AF) slowed development of JPB second, third, fourth, and fifth instars by 2.9, 4.2, 11.1, and 24.5 DD above 7.5, respectively. JPB parasitized by G. fumiferanae (GF) spent 5.3, 7.1, and 11.3 DD above 7.5 longer as fourth, fifth, and sixth instars than unparasitized JPB. Larval AF required 352 DD above 7.3 for development from emergence of second instars to parasite emergence from the host. Pupae required 108 DD above 9.7. GF larvae required 485 DD above 6.1, and pupae required 167 DD above 7.7.These resultssuggestthat parasitism will affect phenology of JPB in the field. Some recommendations for management of JPB populations that consider parasitoid development and conservation of natural enemies are given.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: August 1, 1988
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Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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