Residual Life and Toxicity to Honey Bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) of Selected Pyrethroid Formulations Applied to Cotton in Arizona

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Four pyrethroid insecticides in various formulations were applied to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants in field plots to provide a source of insecticide residues for chemical analyses and honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) bioassays. Leaves were collected immediately after treatment and up to 2 wk later. In general, initial deposits of active ingredients were higher from emulsifiable concentrates (EC) than from wettable powders (WP), which were higher than ultra low volume (UL V) sprays in cottonseed oil. There was little difference among the pyrethroid compounds tested in mean percentages of residue remaining, but formulation of a given pyrethroid had a marked effect in the October experiment. The August experiment showed a uniform decline in residues to <10% of initial levels within 10 d. During October the percentages of residues remaining were similar for WP (19%) and EC (23%), which were much lower than for UL V sprays (58%). Honey bee mortality followed a trend that reflected the results of chemical analyses for residues. Permethrin, cypermethrin, and bifenthrin were highly toxic to honey bees, but fluvalinate was nontoxic in these tests.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: August 1, 1988

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  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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