Implications of the Stochastic Nature of Kuno's and Green's Fixed-Precision Stop Lines: Sampling Plans for the Pea Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Alfalfa as an Example1
Authors: HUTCHISON, WILLIAM D.; HOGG, DAVID B.; POSWAL, ASHRAF M.; BERBERET, RICHARD C.; CUPERUS, GERRIT W.
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 81, Number 3, June 1988 , pp. 749-758(10)
Publisher: Entomological Society of America
Abstract:The fixed-precision sequential sampling plans of Kuno and Green were used to develop monitoring plans for the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris), and tested with sequential sampling bootstrap simulations of six independent data sets. For both sampling plans, and population densities from 0.87 to 96.5 aphids per stem, actual precision levels were not fixed at the desired level but fluctuated considerably depending on the particular set of samples selected for any given simulation run. For each set of simulation runs (n = 100) at the intermediate densities of four and eight aphids per stem, actual precision levels were better than the desired fixed level 99-100% of the time. Corresponding sample sizes for these situations were usually higher than necessary, and the plans were therefore more conservative than stated. Conversely, at the low (0.87 aphids per stem) and high (>24.5 aphids per stem) densities tested, actual precision levels were poorer than the desired level (39-49% of the time). In these situations, too few samples were taken, and the plans were more liberal than stated. These studies clearly demonstrate the stochastic nature of each stop-line plan and emphasize the need for sequential sampling simulations to validate sampling plans before field implementation. As a result of the simulation studies with A. pisum, we used Kuno's stop-line plan with precision levels (D) = 0.30 for low (≤3/stem) and high (> 1S/stem) aphid densities and D = 0.35 for intermediate densities (3.I-IS/stem). These stop lines were selected to maintain an average actual precision level of D ≅ 0.25 across all density ranges.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: June 1, 1988
- Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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