Pesticide Use and Levels of Insect and Scab Injury on Fruit in Nova Scotia Apple Orchards
Authors: Hardman, J. M.; Rogers, R. E. L.; MacLellan, C. R.
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 80, Number 4, August 1987 , pp. 979-984(6)
Publisher: Entomological Society of America
Abstract:A commercial pest management company recorded pesticide use and levels of insect and scab injury to apples from 1980 to 1983. Mean numbers of insecticide and miticide applications were 2.5 and 0.5 per year, respectively. Mean costs of insecticides and miticides (material only) were $44.44 and $23.50/ha. These totals varied little from year to year despite large variations in costs of controlling individual pests. Scouting costs rose from $25.00/ha in 1980 to $37.50/ha in 1983. Targets of most insecticide applications were winter moth, Operophtera brumata (L.); codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.); and apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh). European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch), was the target of most miticide applications. Despite low frequencies and low total costs of insecticide applications, total insect injury averaged only 2.3% of the fruit, declining from 3.8% in 1980 to 2.0% in 1983. Scab injury averaged 1.9%, varying from 0.9% in 1981 to 3.7% in 1983. Success of the integrated pest management (IPM) program is attributed to pest monitoring and use of economic thresholds as well as to a range of tactics designed to minimize impact of pesticides on natural enemies and to delay onset of resistance among the pests.
Document Type: Research article
Publication date: 1987-08-01
- Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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