A wind-tunnel bioassay was used in conjunction with field trapping to determine long-range behavioral response of navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker), females to almond by-products and to assess potential for developing an attracticide by combining these materials with pyrethroids. Crude almond oil (CAO) was 10-fold more effective in attracting navel orangeworm females, on a per-weight basis, than almond presscake (PC); the combination of PC with CAO elicited no greater response than did CAO alone. Mummy almonds, which are those that remain on the tree after harvest, provide the primary sites for oviposition by A. transitella females in the spring, but CAO attracted twice as many females as did larvae-infested mummy almonds and 6.5-fold more than did uninfested mummies. Upwind-flight response to almond materials seemed to be restricted to gravid females, as these materials evoked no response in either virgin males or virgin females. When CAO was combined with pyrethroids, upwind attraction was not significantly affected by either 0.1 or 0.5% formulations of either permethrin or cypermethrin; however, response was reduced when either of these compounds was present at a 1% level. Fenvalerate did not interfere with response to CAO, even at the 1% level. Mortality studies of females attracted to a formulation of nonracemic fenvalerate with CAO showed greatest efficacy (90% mortality) when the toxicant was present at a 2.5% concentration.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: August 1, 1987
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Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.