Insecticide Mixtures as an Approach to the Management of Pyrethroid-resistant Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)
Authors: Byford, Ronnie L.; Lockwood, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Sara M.; Sparks, Thomas C.; Luther, D. G.
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 80, Number 1, February 1987 , pp. 111-116(6)
Publisher: Entomological Society of America
Abstract:The pyrethroids permethrin and cypermethrin were mixed in selected ratios with a synergist (piperonyl butoxide [PB]) and an organophosphorus insecticide (chlorpyrifos) to determine their efficacy on susceptible and resistant populations of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.), in the laboratory and field. The addition of either PB or chlorpyrifos to the pyrethroids increased toxicity 1.4- to 4.2-fold and did not change resistance ratios compared with the pyrethroids alone. The pyrethroid/chlorpyrifos/synergist mixture changed toxicity 8.6- to O.4-fold and generally reduced the level of resistance, compared with the pyrethroids. Field evaluations revealed that no mixture maintained resistant horn fly populations below economically damaging levels, but the addition of PB or chlorpyrifos or both generally improved control. Based on available information concerning toxicity, resistance, and long-term considerations, pyrethroids should be excluded from use in ear tag mixtures for horn fly control.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 1987-02-01
- Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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