Methyl Bromide Fumigation Treatments for Pistachio Nuts to Decrease Residues and Control Navel Orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

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Abstract:

Fumigation of inshell pistachio nuts, Pistacia vera L. 'Kerman', with 32 g/m3 methyl bromide (MB) at 15.5°C for 24 h and 16 or 24g/m3 MB at 26.6°C for 24 h resulted in >98.5% mortality of the egg, larval, and pupal stages of the navel orangeworm, Amyelois transitella (Walker). Inshell pistachio nuts fumigated three times with MB using the approved schedule of 56g/m3 for 24 h at ≥ 15.5°C had inorganic bromide residues above the United States tolerance of 200 ppm. Pistachios fumigated repeatedly with 16, 24, or 32 g/m3 MB for 24 h at 15.5°C or 8, 16, or 24g/m3 MB for 24 h at 26.6°C had residues well below the tolerance. Organic and inorganic residues were higher in nuts fumigated at 15.5°C than at 26.6°C. Sorption of MB by the nuts was not significantly different at the two temperatures. By the end of 13 days, desorption of MB by the nuts caused organic bromide residues to decrease below 0.50 ppm for all treatments used.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: October 1, 1986

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  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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