Insect Sex Pheromones: Formulations to Increase the Stability of Conjugated Dienes
Authors: BROWN, DAVID F.; McDONOUGH, LESLIE M.
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 79, Number 4, August 1986 , pp. 922-927(6)
Publisher: Entomological Society of America
Abstract:Formulation substrates were tested for their ability to suppress isomerization of pheromone components containing the conjugated diene structure. Formulation substrates compared were red natural rubber septa (sleeve-type stopper); gray halo-butyl isoprene blend elastomer septa (sleeve-type stopper); black halo-butyl elastomer septa, containing carbon filler (flange-type stopper, designated 55C); and black halo-butyl elastomer septa (flange-type stopper, designated 50C). All substrates except for 55C contained mineral filler. Red septa were cured with sulfur and the others were cured with phenolic resin. During the first 2 weeks of field exposure, isomerization of (E,Z)-7,9-dodecadien-1-ol acetate was fastest in red septa followed by 55C black (5-fold slower), and the gray (7-fold slower). Isomerization of (Z,E)-9,1l-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate was fastest in red septa and slower in 55C black (8-fold during the first 2 weeks). Isomerization of (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol was fastest in red septa, followed by 55C black (3.7-fold slower during the first 2 weeks) and gray (4.7-fold slower). After 43 days in direct sunlight, the (E,E)-8,10-dodecadien-1-ol acetate isomer content decreased from ca. 96% of total isomers by 16.7, 16.8, and 13.0% in the gray, 50C black, and 55C black, respectively. Type of filler, carbon or mineral, had no effect on stability, and differences in stability of the conjugated dienes in the nonsulfur-cured formulations substrates were minimal. Because of its convenient shape, gray is the preferred substrate for minimizing isomerization of conjugated dienes. Based on these data, conjugated dienes with field lives of 2-3 days in red rubber septa are predicted to last 2-3 weeks in gray septa. The most important factors for minimizing isomerization were avoiding isomerization catalysts such as sulfur and minimizing exposure to sunlight.
Document Type: Research article
Publication date: 1986-08-01
- Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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