Preventive and remedial actions reported by producers to maintain the quality of grain during storage on the farm was minimal. Application of malathion when the grain was binned was the most frequent action reported in wheat, aeration the most frequent in corn, and fumigation the principal action in oats. Less than 10% of the grain was reported as fumigated during storage periods of 1 to 4 years and high numbers of dead adult insects observed in fumigated grain indicate that damaging populations were already present when the decision to fumigate was made. Liquid fumigant mixtures were the principal type used in corn and oats; phosphine-producing fumigants were the predominant types used in wheat. Malathion was found on only 14.6% of the wheat, 8.2% of the corn, and 4.2% of the oats from more than 8,000 farm bins across 27 states. When malathion was present the incidence, number of different species, and density of most species were generally less than in untreated grain. The effectiveness of malathion decreased significantly at grain moisture levels above 12%. The most frequent species found in malathion-treated grain were Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), Cryptolestes spp., Tribolium spp., Rhyzopertha dominica (F.), and Oryzaephilus surinamenis (L.). Nearly two-thirds of the insects found in malathion-treated grain occurred in grain containing residues of 2 ppm or less.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: June 1, 1984
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Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.