Comparative Toxicities of Five Synthetic Pyrethroids to the Tobacco Budworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), an Ichneumonid Parasite, Campoletis sonorensis, and a Predator, Chrysopa carnea

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Abstract:

Five synthetic pyrethroids, phenothrin, cypennethrin, tralomethrin, fluvalinate and Pay-off, [(±)- cyano (3-phenoxyphenyl)methyl (+ )-4-(diflouromethoxy)-α-(1-methylethyl)benzeneacetate],were tested for toxicity to larvae of the tobacco budworm, Heliothis virescens (F.), larvae of a predator, Chrysopa carnea Stephens, and adult males of a parasite, Campoletis sonorensis (Carlson). Tralomethrin was the most toxic to the pest and the parasite, but one of the least toxic to the predator. All these synthetic pyrethroids were less toxic to the predator than to the parasite and, except for phenothrin, were less toxic to the predator than to the pest. Based on their selectivity ratios, tralomethrin seems to be the most promising candidate of the pyrethroids tested for use in integrated pest management programs, provided C. carnea is the major natural enemy component in the ecosystem. Pay-off, tralomethrin, and fluvalinate were nearly equal in toxicity to the pest and the parasite, and therefore, if applied at low doses these insecticides could allow survival of enough parasites to provide additional control of the pest.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: October 1, 1982

More about this publication?
  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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