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Declining Field Efficacy of Chlorpyrifos Against Chironomid Midges and Laboratory Evaluation of Substitute Larvicides

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Against chironomids, 6 applications of 1% G chlorpyrifos at 0.11–0.28 kg AI/ha during May–Sept. 1977, and one of 10% CR pellets at 1.12 kg AI/ha in Sept. 1977 were made to partial or entire areas of 2 man-made lakes. The effectiveness of chlorpyrifos against Chironomus utahensis (Malloch), C. decorus Johannsen, Procladius freemani Sublette, and P. sublettei Roback, gradually declined; a rate of 0.11 kg Al/ha was highly effective in May, but in Sept., the granules even at 0.28 kg Al/ha as well as the CR pellets did not give an effective midge control. Pre-, and posttreatment laboratory bioassays conducted on field-collected larvae revealed a shift in susceptibility of midge larvae to chlorpyrifos, temephos, malathion, and fenthion. In Sept.–Oct. 1977, C. utahensis showed 4½-fold resistance to chlorpyrifos and 3-fold to temephos, while C. decorus developed 10-fold resistance to chlorpyrifos and >2- to 4-fold to the other 3 OPs. Resistance in Procladius spp. ranged from 7-fold to malathion to several hundred fold to temephos. Two of the 4 new synthetic pyrethroids tested in the laboratory were highly active against these midges.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: October 15, 1978

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  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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