Bollwonns, Heliothis zea (Boddie), and tobacco budwonns, H. virescens (F.), pupated in and emerged successfully from soils that ranged from sifted to cloddy and from dry to wet. Beet armyworms, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), preferred cloddy soils for pupation and avoided sifted and very wet soils. Prepupae of the 3 species avoided pupation sites where temperatures were in excess of 38°C. Emergence declined as the pupae were buried in successive 2.5-cm increments from 2.5–15 cm of soil. Emergence of Heliothis moths improved if the buried pupae were in cells. Pressure from cultivation will result in high mortality of the 3 specices.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: August 1, 1978
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Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.