Laboratory and Field Evaluation of Larvicides Against Chironomid Midges1
Authors: MULLA, M. S.; KHASAWINAH, A. M.
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 62, Number 1, February 1969 , pp. 37-41(5)
Publisher: Entomological Society of America
Abstract:A procedure for evaluating insecticides against midge larvae in the laboratory was developed. Aeration of water in test cups increased natural mortality in some of the test species, and presence of quartz sand in the cups reduced mortality and extent of cannibalism.
In laboratory tests, various species manifested different degrees of susceptibility to insecticides evaluated. Ethyl parathion was highly effective against Goeldichironomus holoprassinus (Rempel) and Tanypus grodhausi (Sublette) but was less effective against Chironomus sp. 51. Fenthion was more effective against the last-mentioned species than against G. holoprassintus. Abate® (O,O-dimethyl phosphorothioate O,O-diester with 4,4'-thiodiphenol) was effective against the 3 species, showing highest activity against Chironomus sp. 51. Dursban® (O,O-diethyl 0-3,5,6-tridlloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate) was the most effective material against the 3 species Malathion was quite effective against Chironomus sp. 51. Neopynamin® (2,2-dimethyl-3- (2-methylpropenyl) cyclopropanecarboxylic acid ester with N- (hydroxymethyl) -1-cyc1ohexene-1,2-dicarboximide), a synthetic pyrethroid, was ineffective against the 3 species.
Tests conducted in a shallow sewage oxidation pond showed Dursban, parathion, and methyl parathion to be effective at 0.2-0.25 lb per acre against the 3 species of chironomids. Granular Dursban was less effective than the emulsifiable concentrate. Carbofuran and Akton® O-[2- chloro-l-(2,5-dichlorophenyl)vinyl] O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate) were effective in the range of 0.5 and 0.25 lb per acre respectively. EPN (O-ethyl O-p-nitrophenyl phenyl phosphonothioate), malathion, Bayer 77488 (O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate O-ester with phenyl giyoxylonitrile oxime) and Bayer 78182 (O,O-diethyl phosphorothioate O-ester with (O-chlorophenyl) giyoxylonitrile oxime) were not effective at the rates evaluated.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: February 1, 1969
- Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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