Toxicity of Pesticides to Corn Earworm on Sweet Corn in Southern California 1962–67
Experiments to control Heliothis zea (Boddie) were continued in southern California during the 6-year period 1962–67. By the individual-ear, paint-brush, dust-treatment method Lannate® (S-methyl N-[(methylcarbamoyl) oxy]thioacetimidate), Matacil® (4-(dimethylamino)-m-tolyl methylcarbamate), Gardona® (2-chloro-l-(2,4,5-trichlorophenyl) vinyl dimethyl phosphate), and 2 experimental organophosphate materials, GC-6506 (dimethyl p- (methylthio) phenyl phosphate) and SD-8211 (2-chloro-1- (2,5-dichlorophenyl) vinyl dimethyl phosphate), were equal to or better than DDT, while Banol® (6-chloro-3,4-xylyl methylcarbamate), Furadan® (2,3-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-7-benzofuranyl methylcarbamate), Bomyl® (dimethyl 3-hydroxyglutaconate dimethyl phosphate), and experimental materials MC-A-600 (benzo[b]thien-4-yl methylcarbamate) SD-8530 (3,4,5-trimethylphenyl methylcarbamate), GC-4072 2-chloro-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl) vinyl diethyl phosphate), Ortho 5305 (m-sec-butylphenyl methylcarbamate), and GS-13005 (O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate S-ester with 4-(mercaptomethyl)-2-methoxy-2-1,3,4-thiadiazolin-5-one) were slightly less effective than DDT. Sumithion® (0,0- dimethyl 0-4-nitro-m-tolyl phosphorothioate), RP-11974 (phosalone) (O,O-diethyl phosphorodithioate S-ester with 6-chloro-3-(mercaptomethyl)-2-benzoxazolinone), Baygon® (o-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate), Bromodan® (5-(bromomethyl)-1,2,3,4,7,7-hexachloro-2-norbornene), Morestan ® (6-methyl-2,3-quinoxalinedithiol cyclic S,S-dithiocarbonate), pyrethrum, Heliothis virus, and 12 experimental materials ranged from 14 to 77% less effective than DDT for earworm control. In replicated commercial tests, Gardona and carbaryl were equal to or better than DDT for corn earworm control. DDT residues are present in large amounts (up to 60 ppm) in the soil in some corn fields. Earworm resistance to DDT has increased 30 to 50-fold since 1954. On sweet corn proper timing of pesticide applications hazardous to honey bees, Apis mellifera L., is important. Lannate, Abate® (O,O-dimethyl phosphorothioate O,O-diester with 4,4′-thiodiphenol), and Gardona as hand treatments gave excellent control of the thrips Frankliniella williamsi Hood on corn.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: December 16, 1968
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Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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