Biological Control of Armored Scale Insects in Mexico1

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Abstract:

In the past quarter century outstanding successes in control of insect pests by introduced entomophagous parasites have been achieved in Mexico. Previous to the accidental introduction of the citrus black fly, Aleurocanthus woglurni Ashby, first reported in Mexico in 1935, and subsequent to the outstanding biological control of this species, the most serious pests of citrus in Mexico have been the Florida red scale, Chrysornphalus aonidum (L.), and the purple scale, Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman). In some areas of north Mexico the California red scale, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) is the most serious problem. Other armored scales that occur on citrus in Mexico are relatively unimportant economically. The chaff scale, Parlatoria Pergandii Com stock; the dictyospermum scale, Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morgan); and other scale species would be economic pests in Mexico in the absence of control by domestic enemies.

Native parasites and predators have not provided adequate control of the Florida red or the purple scale in Mexico. Since 1954 a series of introductions of exotic parasite species from cultures maintained at the University of California, Riverside, have been made in Mexico. Aphytis lepidosaphes Compere, was introduced in 1954 and A. holaxanthus DeBach in 1960. Both of these species readily became established. Parasitized material from original colonizations has been used to establish colonies in citrus-producing regions throughout the Republic. The purple scale and the Florida red scale have been controlled effectively by A. lepidasaphes and A. holoxanthus, respectively, in all regions in Mexico where liberations have been made.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: August 1, 1968

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  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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