Inhibitive Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis on the Development of the Face Fly in Cow Manure1
During the summers of 1965 and 1966 a concentrate containing Bacillus thuringiensis var.thuringiensis Berliner at 25x100 spores per gram was employed as a feed pupation. additive for Holstein dairy cattle to render their manure unsuitable as a medium for development of face fly, Musca autumnalis De Geer. Two dosages of the feed additive were used, 1.25 and 0.625% of the daily diet (equivalent to 0.37 and 0.185 g/kg cow body weight per day respectively) . Eight cows were used, 4 as test animals and, 4 as controls
The B. thuringiensis feed additive employed at the higher dosage caused on an average 99.6% reduction in the numbers of face flies developing from eggs to adults in the resulting manure. At the lower dosage, development from eggs to adults was reduced by 84.9%. At the higher dosage, only 2 of the eggs in the test manure to pupae (neither emerged as an adult) , as com pared with 981 in the control manure. The lower dosage inhibited development of eggs to pupae by approximately 80%. However, no significant toxic effect occurred after Pupation.
When larvae were released into pats of test and control manure, a reduction of 97.1% in adult emergence was achieved with the higher dosage and 42.3% with the lower dosage. At the higher dosage, toxic effects were manifest during both the larval and pupae stages. However, at the lower dosage the bacillus did not significantly inhibit the development of pupae to adults.
Extensive studies on the oviposition habits of female face flies showed that manure containing B. thuringiensis at either concentration had no deterrent effect on their egg-laying activities. With the exception of 1 cow, which developed diarrhea in the course of experiments, all animals employed in the tests were apparently healthy during the 2 summers.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: February 1, 1968
More about this publication?
Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
- Editorial Board
- Submit a Paper
- Subscribe to this Title
- Information for Advertisers
- Visit this journal's homepage
- ingentaconnect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
Open access content
Free trial content