Differential Susceptibility and Resistance to Insecticides of Coexisting Populations of Musca domestica, Fannia canicularis, F. femoralis, and Ophyra leucostoma1
Coexisting populations of house fly, Musca domestica L.; little house fly, Faunia canicularis (L.); and F. femoralis Stein, in 3 poultry ranches in southern California, 2 of which relied heavily on chemical control, were tested by topical application for resistance to 2 organochlorine, 10 organophosphorus, and 1 carbamate insecticide. Simultaneously, "susceptible" populations from areas which had experienced minimal use of insecticides, especially organophosphates, were used in establishing base-line levels of susceptibility. No large interspecific differences were found in the base-line data and, thus, no evidence of pronounced natural tolerance toward any of the test compounds. However, populations that had experienced considerable chemical control showed significant interspecific differences both in the degree and the spectrum of developed resistance.
In each of the 3 ranches sampled for resistance, M. domestica was the most resistant to most of the compounds, followed by F. canicularis, then by F. femoralis. Tests on Ophyra leucostoma Wiedemann from 1 ranch revealed only incipient resistance to DDT and fielding and none to oregano phosphates or carbonates. The highest levels of resistance observed in M. domestica (at LD.95) were: DDT >1000 times, dieldrin >1000 times, coumaphos >909 times, Ciodrin® (alpha-methylbenzyl 3-hydroxycrotonate dimethyl phosphate) 182 times, malathion 102 times, diazinon 66.5 limes, ronnel 26.3 times, naled 11.8 times, fenthion 10.2 times, dimethioate 4.6 times, dichlorvos 4.2 times. and Temik® (2-methyl-2- (methylthio)- propionaldehyde O- (methylcarbamoyl) oxime) 6.2 times; in F. canicularis DDT 1009 times, dieldrin 400 times. coumaphos >174 times, Ciodrin 81.9 times, malathion 5931 times, diazinon 6.8 times. ronnel 4.5 limes, and Temik 6.3 times; in F. femoralis, DDT 25.9 times, dieldrin 233.5 times, and malathion 55.8 times.
In view of the similarities in the base line data for each insecticide, the observed differences in the general level of resistance in coexisting populations of the 3 species may be attributed to unequal selection pressure dependent on the biological and ethological characteristics of the species. furthermore, interspecific variations in the spectrum of resistance which occur consistently in coexisting populations suggest the presence of qualitative differences in the physiological potential of each species for development of resistance to certain insecticides.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: October 1, 1967
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Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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