Efficacy, Cholinesterase Inhibition, and Residue Persistence of Indian® for the Control of Cattle Grubs1,2,3,4
Spray and pour-on trials with Imidan®, (N- (mercaptomethyl) phthalimide S-(O,O-dimethyl phosphorodithioate) for the control of the common cattle grub, Hypoderma lineatum (de Villers) , and the northern cattle grub, H. bovis (L.), were conducted in Oregon in 1964-65 and 1965-66. The 1st year, when 2 herds of 50 calves each were sprayed, Imidan at 0.25 and 0.10% reduced infestations by 75-100%, but at 0.05% it was ineffective (0-31 %) . In contrast, a pour-on of Ruelene® (4-tert-butyl-2-chlorophenyl methyl methylphosphoramidate) , at the then currently recommended rate of application (9.2 g/calf) , was 98-100% effective. No demonstrable weight differences occurred because of the chemical treatment, either in the week after the applications or in the 3 to 5 months thereafter. No toxic reactions were observed in either herd.
In 1965-66, Imidan sprays on a group of 101 calves gave good control (97%) at a concentration of 0.375%, but a 0.25% spray gave only 67% control, and a 0.08% spray produced no effect. In contrast, Ruelene sprayed at 0.375% provided 99% grub control. However, pour-on treatments of Imidan in 2 herds (at a 4.9 g/head rate of application) yielded 98 and 90% control, respectively. No toxic reactions were observed.
Cholinesterase activity was determined in whole blood taken from 50 calves treated with Imidan or with Ruelene in 1964-65 and in a group of 20 calves treated with Imidan pour-on or left as controls in 1965-66. In the 1st year, when blood was withdrawn at 0, 1, 3, 7, and 28 days posttreatment, the maximum mean apparent inhibition (15%, compared with the control group) was found in the group treated with 0.25% Imidan at day 3 and day 7. The maximum mean apparent inhibition in the group treated with Ruelene was 3% in the day 7 samples. In 1965-66, blood was withdrawn at 0, 2, 7, and 14 days posttreatment. The maximum mean apparent inhibition (28%) was found in the Imidan pour-on treated group at day 7.
In 1964-65,Imidan residues were determined in 5 steers sprayed at a concentration of 0.25% Imidan and slaughtered on days 3, 7, 14,28, and 59 posttreatment. On day 3. significant residues were found in omental, perirenal, and subcutaneous fat, and in muscle, but not in liver. Residues were below detection limits in all tissue samples on and subsequent to day 7.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: June 1, 1967
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Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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