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Methyl Bromide, Sulfuryl Fluoride, and Other Fumigants Against Quarantinable Cochlicella and Theba Snails

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In tests conducted during 1958–63, estivated snails proved very resistant to fumigation. Cochlicella barbara (L.) and related species required 8 lb methyl bromide/ 1000 ft3 for 72 hr at 55°F or above in tight chambers or under plastic tarpaulins. Very long exposure appeared especially important for complete kill. Estivated Theba pisana (Müller) were much less resistant than C. barbara, with 6 lb for 10 hr being sufficient. Vacuum fumigation was much more effective against both snails. Methyl bromide at 40° to 55°F also appeared promising. Sulfuryl fluoride at 3 lb for 72 hr was effective at warm temperatures, but some Cochlicella survived 6 lb near 55°F. Hydrogen cyanide showed much promise at 2–3 lb for 72 hr, as did chloropicrin in preliminary tests at 1.5 lb for 48 hr. Survivors occurred with 5 lb acrylonitrilc-carbon tetrachloride (34 to 66% by vol) for 72 hr. Results with carbon disulphide, carbon tetrachloride, ethylene dibromide, methallyl chloride, hydrogen phosphide, and other chemicals are discussed. Resistance of estivated snails varied from year to year and was greatest the first 3 months after field collection. Some snails survived 18 months under warm, dry conditions, without food or water, when resistance was at a minimum.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: August 1, 1965

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  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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