Black fleahopper, Spanogonicus albofasciatus (Reuter), eggs laid in green beans were held at 7 temperatures. The egg stage took from 13.9 days at an average temperature of 65°F to 6.2 days at 95°F, while the nymphal stage took from 34.2 to 9.4 days at these temperatures. Development was as rapid at fluctuating as at constant temperatures. Five nymphal instars were observed. Adult females lived an average of 39.4 days and males 41.0 days in one study and 35.6 days and 38.2 in another. The preoviposition period averaged 4 days and the number of offspring averaged 39.5 per pair. The duration of the nymphal stage in 2 greenhouses on green beans and in the field on cotton plants was similar to that in cabinets at the same average temperatures. Fleahopper nymphs developed more rapidly on cotton with spider mites than without spider mites.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: August 1, 1965
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