Natural Biotic Control Factors of the Eye-Spotted Bud Moth, Spilonota ocellana on Apple in Wisconsin
Authors: LEGNER, E. F.; OATMAN, E. R.
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 56, Number 6, December 1963 , pp. 130-732(603)
Publisher: Entomological Society of America
Abstract:A 4-year study of the naturally occurring biotic control factors affecting the eye-spotted bud moth, Spilonota ocellana (Denis and Schiffermüller), on apple in Wisconsin revealed the existence of parasitic, predatory, and microorganismal agents. Nine hymenopterous parasites, three predators, and four pathogens were involved. Principal parasitic species were Itoplectis conquisitor (Say)' and Habrocytus phycidis Ashmead. Aspergillus flavus Link and a polyhedral virus were the most prevalent causes of disease. A high mortality occurring in the pupal stage could not be attributed to known causes. It is postulated that the comparatively low numbers of primary species and their small part in the regulation of the eye-spotted bud moth population may have been due mainly to the extensive use of pesticides in the area. The need for the use of selective pesticides in an integrated control program is emphasized.
Document Type: Research article
Publication date: 1963-12-01
- Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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