The Development and Characterization of Resistance to Carbamate Insecticides in the House Fly, Musca domestica1

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Abstract:

Two subcolonies of a house fly strain of near normal susceptibility to all insecticides except to members of the cyclodiene group were selected with Isolan® (1-isopropyl-3-methylpyrazolyl- (5)-dimethylcarbamate) and Compound III (3-isopropylphenyl N-methylcarbamate), respectively, during all life stages. After 20 generations of selection with Isolan, a 7- and 19.5-fold resistance to this compound was present in adults and larvae, respectively. Selection with Compound III resulted, respectively, in > 50- and 7.5-fold resistance in these stages. Injection of Compound III indicated a 4.9-fold level of adult resistance.

Cross-resistance in the selected strains was nearly complete to carbamates of the general formula where R- was either 2-isopropyl, S-isopropyl, 2-isopropoxy, or 3-tert-butyl; to Pyrolan® (1-phenyl-3-methylpyrazolyl-(5)-dimethylcarbamate); and to Sevin® (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate). Cross-resistance to 3,5-dimethoxyphenyl N-methylcarbamate and phenyl N,N-dimethylcarbamate was approximately 10- and S-fold, respectively. Both carbamate-selected strains showed low cross-tolerance ((3-fold) to DDT, Prolan®(1,1-bis (p-chlorophenyl)-2-nitropropane), parathion, Chlorthion®(O-(3- chloro-4-nitrophenyl) O, O-dimethyl phosphorothioate) and dicapthon, and higher cross-tolerance or low cross-resistance (3-to 6-fold) to methoxychlor, malathion, Diazinon® (O,O-diethyl 0- (2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidinyl) phosphorothioate), ronnel and allethrin.

Chlorinated hydrocarbon and organophosphorus insecticide-resistant strains manifested cross-resistance levels toward carbamates approximating those exhibited by the carbamate-selected strains. In all cross-resistance tests, some specificity within the N-methyl and N,N-dimethyl carbamate groups was evident.

Cross-tolerance to either Isolan or Compound III in combination with piperonyl butoxide (1:5 ratio) was <6- and <3-fold, respectively, in all resistant strains, regardless of history of exposure. Selection of the Compound III-resistant strain for eight additional generations with Compound III plus piperonyl butoxide resulted in only threefold tolerance to this combination.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: February 1, 1961

More about this publication?
  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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