Observations on Black Flies in Two Maryland Counties1
Authors: MCCOMB, CHARLES W.; BICKLEY, WILLIAM E.
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 52, Number 4, August 1959 , pp. 629-632(4)
Publisher: Entomological Society of America
Abstract:In recent years residents of the Maryland suburbs of Washington, D. C., have been bothered by small lion-biting flies that swarm around the head and enter the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth. It was known that some of the flies causing annoyance were black flies Surveys were conducted during 1956 and 1957 to identify annoying flies and to learn as much as possible about their ecology and distribution within Prince Georges and Montgomery Counties. In 1956, 215 observations were made on habits of adults of various species at 43 stations; 92 collections were made at 21 stations; H3 observations were negative. Simulium jenningsi Malloch adults were collected at 18 stations and were present at one or more stations during each 10-day period from .May to November. There were 186 different observations on larvae at 40 stations during 1956 with collections made at 36 stations; 42 observations were negative.S. jenningsi larvae were collected at only five stations, four of which were located in the Potomac River. Additional observations in 1957 provided further evidence that S. jenningsi was the predominant species. Adults were common throughout the metropolitan areas of the two counties, but larvae were found almost exclusively in the Potomac River where they were associated with water willow, Dianthera Americana L. It appears that there are two principal generations which usually emerge early in May and early in June.Ten different species of black flies were collected during the surveys: Prosimulium hirtipes (Fries), P. magnum and Shannon, Cnephia mulata (Malloch), Simulium fibrinflatum Twinn, S. venustum Say, S. parnassum Malloch, S. vittatum Zetterstedt, S. decorum Walker, S. jenningsi, and S. tuberosum (Lundstroem). Adult Chloropidae and Drosophilidae were collected occasionally.Adult females of Simulium decorum, S. venusturn, and S. parnassum were recorded as biting Ulan during this survey.Various formulations of BHC, DDT, and malathion were used in fog machines, and formulations of BHC and DDT were used in mist blowers for control of adults. Unsatisfactory results were obtained in that relief from fly annoyance lasted for only a few hours probably because relatively small areas (500 acres) were treated.
Document Type: Research article
Publication date: 1959-08-01
- Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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