Mealybugs Attacking Citrus in California-A Survey of Their Natural Enemies and the Release of New Parasites and Predators1
Authors: BARTLETT, B. R.; LLOYD, D.C.
Source: Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 51, Number 1, February 1958 , pp. 90-93(4)
Publisher: Entomological Society of America
Abstract:From 1953 through 1955 a survey was made of the natural enemies of the mealy bugs attacking citrus in California. Pseudococcus citri (Risso), the most destructive mealy bug on citrus in California, was most abundant in the intermediate citrus areas or zones of moderate humidity. Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrh.), closely rivaling P. citri in severity on citrus, requires high humidity for optimum development. Its distribution overlaps that of P. citri in the intermediate zone and that of Pseudococcus adonidum (L.), which wail damaging to citrus in the more humid coastal areas. Pseudococcus gahani Green is rare. It overlaps the three other species in its distribution Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Muls. was in general the most efficient predator of heavy infestations of mealy bugs on citrus. However, Sympherobius spp. and Chrysopa spp. are sometimes major factors in reducing heavy populations in certain areas. Leucopis bella Loew, Coccinella californica Mann., Hyperaspis lateralis Muls., and Scymnus sordidus Horn are less efficient Mealy bug predators in the order named. The relative abundance of the different parasites permanently established on each of the four citrus-infesting mealy bugs is shown in a table along with the stages of host attacked. Some of these parasites attack a number of mealy bug species, but always select the same host stages. A synoptic list of 19 species of mealy bug-feeding natural enemies imported into California within the past 10 years is presented along with their host preferences and stages of host attack. Of the newly imported natural enemies, Allotropa citri Mues. and Anagyrus pseudococci Gir. have been recovered from field release sites.
Document Type: Research article
Publication date: 1958-02-01
- Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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