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A New Development in the Fixation of Nicotine

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Abstract:

A new insoluble nicotine insecticide is prepared by heating an aqueous solution of nicotine, resorcinol and formaldehyde. A finely divided precipitate is obtained. The washed, air-dried product contains about 22% nicotine. The nicotine dissolves in water to the extent of 0.004 gm in 100 cc. It is about one-fifth as soluble as the nicotine in Nicotine Tannate. Prepared as a paste, the new material was mixed with oil and applied to apples by dipping. Its toxicity to codling moth (C. pomonella L) was equal to that of Nicotine Tannate. The oil caused it to stick to the apple, so that the deposit was about twice as reistsant to washing with water as was a deposit of Nicotine Tannate.

In a previous communication2 I have compared Nicotine Tannate and Arsenate of Lead as cover sprays for codling moth, to the advantage of the former. The efficiency of Nicotine Tannate is greatly reduced by the rapid disappearance of nicotine from fruit and foliage sprayed with it.

When vessels are placed under trees, which have been sprayed with, Nicotine Tannate, considerable nicotine is recoverable from the water which accumulates after rains. From dry Nicotine Tannate 0.15 to 0.20 gm of nicotine will dissolve in 1000 cc. of water. When Nicotine Tannate is made in the spray tank, some 40% of the nicotine remains unprecipitated. Nicotine Tannate is, accordingly, much more soluble in water than the arsenicals and this is believed to account in large measure for its rapid loss from sprayed trees. Its effectiveness is due to its great toxicity.

Attempts to prevent the dissolving away of Nicotine Tannate by the use of sticking and coating materials have resulted in failure. Only fish oil has given encouraging results. It was felt, therefore, that the discovery of a less soluble nicotine preparation was desirable. Such a substance was prepared, and will be described in this paper.

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: June 1, 1933

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  • Journal of Economic Entomology is published bimonthly in February, April, June, August, October, and December. The journal publishes articles on the economic significance of insects and is divided into the following sections: apiculture & social insects; arthropods in relation to plant disease; forum; insecticide resistance and resistance management; ecotoxicology; biological and microbial control; ecology and behavior; sampling and biostatistics; household and structural insects; medical entomology; molecular entomology; veterinary entomology; forest entomology; horticultural entomology; field and forage crops, and small grains; stored-product; commodity treatment and quarantine entomology; and plant resistance. In addition to research papers, Journal of Economic Entomology publishes Letters to the Editor, interpretive articles in a Forum section, Short Communications, Rapid Communications, and Book Reviews.
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