Facultative Hyperparasitism and Sex Determination of Encarsia smithi (Silvestri) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)
Authors: NGUYEN, RU; SAILER, R. I.
Source: Annals of the Entomological Society of America, Volume 80, Number 6, November 1987 , pp. 713-719(7)
Publisher: Entomological Society of America
Abstract:Encarsia smithi (Silvestri) and Encarsia opulenta (Silvestri) are primary parasites of the citrus blackfly, Aleurocanthus woglumi Ashby, but E. smithi is also a hyperparasite. Diploid E. smithi larvae are primary parasites, whereas haploid larvae are parasites of conspecific diploids as well as of diploids of E. opulenta. Virgin females of E. smithi deposit haploid eggs in mature larvae or pupae of E. opulenta or E. smithi to produce male offspring by arrhenotoky. Mated females deposit diploid eggs in A. woglumi nymphs and produce female progeny irrespective of whether the hosts are already parasitized by E. opulenta or unparasitized. Diploid eggs or as many as four newly emerged larvae of E. smithi were found in A. woglumi gastric caeca. Larvae moved into the body cavity of A. woglumi as late second instars. Mated female E. smithi also have the option to produce males by ovipositing haploid eggs in A. woglumi nymphs already parasitized by either E. smithi or E. opulenta.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: November 1, 1987
- Annals of the Entomological Society of America is published in January, March, May, July, September, and November. Annals especially invites submission of manuscripts that integrate different areas of insect biology, and address issues that are likely to be of broad relevance to entomologists. Articles also report on basic aspects of the biology of arthropods, divided into categories by subject matter: systematics; ecology and population biology; arthropod biology; arthropods in relation to plant diseases; conservation biology and biodiversity; physiology, biochemistry, and toxicology; morphology, histology, and fine structure; genetics; and behavior.
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