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Graphium sp. near rigidum (Pers.) Sacc, Ceratocystis ? pluriannulata (Hedgc.) Moreau, Fusarium tricinctum Cda., F. oxysporum Schl., F. solani Mart., Pichia n. sp., Gliocladiuin roseum Bainier, and Rhizoctonia sp. were isolated from galleries of Corthylus columbianus Hopkins and the associated stains in sapwood of soft maple, Acer saccharinum L. The white pseudomycelial mat of Pichia sp. is very conspicuous in the egg chambers of the beetle during its egg and larval stages, and the larvae depend solely upon it for the food mass. Optimum temperatures for growth of the Ceratocystis and the Pichia, respectively, were 65°–85° and 65°–75°F. Pichia sp. did not grow at 40° or 90°F, but these 2 temperatures did not inhibit growth of Ceratocystis. No stain developed in soft maple sapwood blocks inoculated in the laboratory. The Pichia and the Ceratocystis failed to grow in test blocks with 20.7%–25.4% moisture content (based on oven-dry weight), but moisture contents of 66.7%–83.2% were favorable for their growth at 75°F. Inoculations of a living soft maple tree with pure cultures of Ceratocystis sp., Pichia sp., Fusarium tricinctum, Graphium sp., and Rhizoctonia sp. resulted, 7 months later, in 100% staining, but the respective organisms were recovered at only 8%–50% of the inoculation sites. Though sapwood stain associated with some species of fungi was significantly longer than with the null, aseptic inoculation controls, all excavations yielded well-developed stains. While the presence of certain fungi may augment stain development, the results indicate that the role of the fungi is minor and that mechanical injury alone is the primary inciter of staining.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: September 1, 1966
More about this publication?
Annals of the Entomological Society of America is published in January, March, May, July, September, and November. Annals especially invites submission of manuscripts that integrate different areas of insect biology, and address issues that are likely to be of broad relevance to entomologists. Articles also report on basic aspects of the biology of arthropods, divided into categories by subject matter: systematics; ecology and population biology; arthropod biology; arthropods in relation to plant diseases; conservation biology and biodiversity; physiology, biochemistry, and toxicology; morphology, histology, and fine structure; genetics; and behavior.