Impact of old foliage removal, simulating defoliation by the balsam fir sawfly, on balsam fir tree growth and photosynthesis of current-year shoots

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Keywords: Abies balsamea; Foliar nutrients; Gas exchange; Neodiprion abietis; Shoot growth; Spruce budworm (Choristoneura fumiferana)

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service-Atlantic Forestry Centre, P.O. Box 4000, , NB, E3B 5P7, Fredericton, Canada

Publication date: December 5, 2003

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