Lip-Wave Generation in Horn Players and the Estimation of Lip-Tissue Elasticity
A natural horn equipped with a transparent mouthpiece was played by two advanced, two medium, and one beginning players. A slow-motion picture of the upper lip movement was taken by the stroboscope from the frontal and side directions. Our experiment brought the following new information: (1) Lip opening motion is generally three-dimensional. Such motion tends to be two-dimensionalized by reducing needless lateral (sideward) motion when advanced players play. (2) The 2-D (outward and upward) trajectory of the lip opening consists of distinguishable phases in a characteristic hysteresis loop, whose shape is relevant to the player's individuality. (3) The 2-D trajectory of the wave crest on the upper lip illustrates the lip-wave propagation. The lateral wave propagation (with the speed of about 2 to 4 m/s) creates the outward lip opening in the lowest F2 tone. Non-advanced players cannot generate a distinct lip wave. The vertical wave propagation governs the upward lip opening in higher-mode tones. (4) The application of the Rayleigh-type surface-wave assumption and the averaged vertical wave velocity (1.7 to 1.8 m/s) to the estimation of lip tissue elasticity approximates the shear modulus as about 3.5 to 4·103 N/m2. (5) Some correlations between the individual lip motion and the associated tonal difference in the radiated output are seen in mid to high frequencies.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2003-01-01
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- Acta Acustica united with Acustica, published together with the European Acoustics Association (EAA), is an international, peer-reviewed journal on acoustics. It publishes original articles on all subjects in the field of acoustics, such as general linear acoustics, nonlinear acoustics, macrosonics, flow acoustics, atmospheric sound, underwater sound, ultrasonics, physical acoustics, structural acoustics, noise control, active control, environmental noise, building acoustics, room acoustics, acoustic materials, acoustic signal processing, computational and numerical acoustics, hearing, audiology and psychoacoustics, speech, musical acoustics, electroacoustics, auditory quality of systems. It reports on original scientific research in acoustics and on engineering applications. The journal considers scientific papers, technical and applied papers, book reviews, short communications, doctoral thesis abstracts, etc. In irregular intervals also special issues and review articles are published.
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