Evaluation of the Olive Productions in Turkey Using Time Series Analysis
Abstract:Turkey is located in the Mediterranean Basin. The natural environment characteristics of the Mediterranean basin reflect human life and have resulted in economic activities specific to the region. The most important economic sector of the Mediterranean basin is agriculture. It currently provides employment for nearly half of the labour force and it uses most of the land and water resources (Makhzoumi and Pungetti 1999). The olive tree, which is the indicator tree of Mediterranean climate area, has an important role in Mediterranean culture and the livelihood of individuals (Atalay 2004). In the Mediterranean, olive business generates direct income for about 7 million families and indirectly supports 30–35 million families in less favoured areas (Fleskens 2007).
One of the distinctive characteristics of the Mediterranean Basin is its climate conditions. The characteristic warm to hot dry summer and mild cool wet winter is distinguished by local variations determined by topography, aspect and vegetation cover. The majority of Mediterranean lands have a long dry season, which results in a characteristic scarcity of water resources. The Mediterranean is also referred to as the “olive climate” because of wide distribution of the cultivated olive tree. The cultivation of olive trees in the Mediterranean basin goes back to ancient times. The olive is a significant plant associated with the Mediterranean (Makhzoumi and Pungetti 1999). On the earth, the olive zone is most intense in the Mediterranean basin and has a great importance in the economic, social, and cultural life of these countries (Loumou ve Giourga 2003).
The Mediterranean basin is one of the world's well-marked biogeographic regions (Atalay 2008). The olive tree is an element of maquis communities which occurs in the natural vegetation of Mediterranean climate (Efe et al. 2009). The olive, Olea europaea, is the only species of the botanical family Oleaceae with edible fruit (Rojas and Mosquera 2008). “Olea” is a wild fruit, and includes different species and sub-species. “Olea europeae” is one of these species and has a primary importance. Olea europeae has two main sub-species: “Olea europaea var. sylvestris” (wild olive) and “Olea europaea var. sativa” (cultivated olive) (Ünsal 2003). Its cultivation began more than 6000 years ago (making it one of the oldest cultivated plants) in the Middle East, and spread west on both sides of the Mediterranean Sea (Rojas and Mosquera 2008). The olive tree, which was grown naturally in areas of Mediterranean climate, is known to have been grown in these areas for different purposes for a long period of time (Terral 2000).
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2011