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Turkey is the meeting place of three phyto-geographical regions: Euro- Siberian, Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian (Davis 1965–1985; Davis et al. 1988). The study area is around the Melendiz and Keçiboyduran Volcanic Mountains that rise abruptly along the northern part of Nigde province. This area is a part of a region commonly known as Cappadocia. The relief map (Fig. 33-1) clearly displays the very high topographic relief of the Mt. Melendiz and Mt. Keçiboyduran volcanic complexes, which are easily distinguished from the low-lying background. Vegetation studies considering soil properties, particularly studies of pure oak trees in areas where the parent material contains pumice, are very rare. Most studies are of areas that contain other rock types, such as granite, limestone and gypsum rocks. The first detailed study of gypsum flora in Turkey was reported by Akpulat and Çelik (2005) from the Sivas province, which is located in the eastern part of Cappadocia, in Central Anatolia. Solon et al (2007) studied the relationship between vegetation and topographical-soil gradients. According to this study, plant cover is an easily discernible, recognizable and labile component of the natural environment, which reacts to changes in other components. One of the more important components controlling vegetation cover is the soil, and both vegetation and soil are influenced by topography, among other things. The ecological relationship between plant, climate, parent material and soil were explained by Ocakverdi and Oflas (1999) for the Upper Göksu catchment area (Hadım-Konya). Dry forest areas of the Karadağ and Karacadağ volcanic mountains are located in the southern part of Central Anatolia (Avcı 2004). In addition, Avcı (1996) studied the floristic region of Turkey and used a geographical approach for Anatolian Diagonal. The floristic richness of Turkey is related to different geographical conditions in different regions, which determine vegetation formation (Atalay and Efe 2010; Efe 2010). The presence of productive oak forests is closely related to ignimbrite rock containing various elements and soil. Soil is defined as that element of the natural environment whose genesis and properties are functions of the climatic, biotic, geomorphological, lithological, aquatic and anthropogenic conditioning, being affected at any given time in given space (Solon et al. 2007).
Natural Environment and Culture in the Mediterranean Region II The Mediterranean Basin is the largest of the five Mediterranean-climate regions, and one of the largest archipelagos in the world. The basin is located at the intersection of two major landmasses, Eurasia and Africa; and has around five thousand islands, which contribute much to its high diversity and spectacular scenery. This volume continues the analysis of the changes and impacts experienced by the native flora and fauna of the Basin first expounded in 'Natural Environment and Culture in the Mediterranean Region'.