Konya is the one of the largest cities in Central Anatolia (Turkey) with an area of 38,873 km2. The provincial borders of Konya are encircled by Ankara in the north, Aksaray and Nigde in the east, Karaman in the south, Mersin in the southeast, Antalya in the southwest, Isparta in the west and Afyon and Eskisehir in the northwest. It is believed that the name Konya originates from the word “Icon”, meaning “Sacred Image” in the first ages. From the Seljuk period onwards it has been known as Konya. Konya and its surroundings have been settling areas and a cradle to civilisations since 7000 BC. From very old settling areas around Konya, Çatalhöyük has the settlement characteristics of the Neolithic Age, Karalhöyük has the characteristics of the Chalcolithic Age and Alaeddin Hill has the settlement characteristics of the old Bronze Age. In its historical ages, Konya and its surroundings were ruled by Hittites, Phrygians and Lydians, in the 6th century BC by Persians, in the 4th century BC by Alexander the Great and Diadokians, in the 2nd century BC by Romans and in 395 AD by Byzantines. Although Sasanians and Emevis invaded Konya in the 7th century, it was a Byzantine province until the 10th century (Özonder 2005). Konya was conquered by the Seljuk Sultan, Kutalmısoglu Sultan Süleyman Shah after the Turks came to Anatolia. The Sultanate of Rum which was established in 1074 and whose capital was Iznik, moved the capital to Konya when Iznik was lost at the end of the first Crusade. Konya, remaining under the sway of the Sultanate of Rum between 1097 and 1308, fell under the rule of the Karamanid Dynasty with the collapse of the Sultanate of Rum. In 1465, Konya was taken into the Ottoman borders by Mehmet II (Konyalı 1997). It is one of the biggest cities in terms of population and economic features in Turkey today.
Natural Environment and Culture in the Mediterranean Region II The Mediterranean Basin is the largest of the five Mediterranean-climate regions, and one of the largest archipelagos in the world. The basin is located at the intersection of two major landmasses, Eurasia and Africa; and has around five thousand islands, which contribute much to its high diversity and spectacular scenery. This volume continues the analysis of the changes and impacts experienced by the native flora and fauna of the Basin first expounded in 'Natural Environment and Culture in the Mediterranean Region'.