Recently, due to the effect of the dynamics of globalization in the world, economic structuring in particular has entered an immense process of change. In this process, Turkey on the one hand develops EU harmonization projects, and on the other hand, the need for regional and sectoral development policies has emerged. As a result of the 1999 Helsinki Meeting, during which Turkey was announced as a candidate country, new economic development programs were prepared and put into action at both national and regional level. One of the most important indicators of the effectiveness and productiveness of the economic order is employment by economic activities and employment distribution by sector, together with unemployment rates and structure. Employment is the working activity of production factors or making them work in order to gain benefit. In Turkey, apart from the current employment problem and unemployment deadlock, the imbalance of the labour force between the employed women and men is an important obstacle. Another apparent characteristic of the employment problem in Turkey is the structure of employment distribution based on the agricultural sector. In order to solve these problems and advance the Turkish economy to a stable development process, it is necessary for new technologies to be used and for competitive power to be increased. The employment structure informs us about the development level of countries and it is considered the main condition of creating new employment in service and industry in the global economy. This study aimed at comparing the distribution of employment by economic sectors in Turkey to those of EU candidate countries. The basic criteria for the comparison are the distribution of employment by sectors and by gender. The study made use of the publications of the World Bank – WDI, Eurostat 2008 – TÜİK 2008, and particular attention was paid to ensure that the data used in the research are up-to-date.
Natural Environment and Culture in the Mediterranean Region II The Mediterranean Basin is the largest of the five Mediterranean-climate regions, and one of the largest archipelagos in the world. The basin is located at the intersection of two major landmasses, Eurasia and Africa; and has around five thousand islands, which contribute much to its high diversity and spectacular scenery. This volume continues the analysis of the changes and impacts experienced by the native flora and fauna of the Basin first expounded in 'Natural Environment and Culture in the Mediterranean Region'.