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The aim of the present study is investigate the relationship between the formation of the drainage system and regional tectonism on the south slope of the Bolkar Mountains. In this study, numerical data on 51 rivers, which are feeding from the Bolkar Mountains and are located in a basin between the Goksu River (Silifke) and the Tarsus River (Tarsus), were evaluated by correlation. Hierarchical structures of rivers were taken into consideration for this evaluation. Every main river and its tributaries were evaluated (Fig. 2-2, 2-3). River density, river frequency, bifurcation ratio and valley profiles of each basin were numerically correlated. The distribution and common characteristics of outcomes were examined. The study was conducted on numerical maps of the Bolkar Mountains with 1:25.000 and 1:100.000 scales using the softwares Mapinfo7.5 and Surfer 8. Since all the rivers in the study area do not directly flow into the Mediterranean Sea, three different sub-basins were identified (Fig. 2-3). The Goksu River basin is separated from the western watershed line extending roughly in a direction of NW-SE in the west of the area. The middle section, which is called the Mediterranean Basin, covers all parts of the slopes facing the Mediterranean Sea. This area was deeply dissected by running water flowing into Mediterranean Sea. Rivers that split the wide plateau of the Bolkar Mountains and then reach to Mediterranean Sea are located in this section. The Third basin is called Tarsus River basin which is found in the east, and is also deeply dissected by the streams of the Cehennem, Kadincik and Gülek Rivers which are the main tributaries of Tarsus River. Each main river and their sub-basins containing the tributaries of the main basin were recognized (Fig. 2-3, 2-5). Moreover, a main river and its tributaries were classified in the sub-basins. A main river is distinguished by a hierarchical classification as increasing segments such as the main river first, second and third tributaries, etc., similar to the Scheidegger (segmantation formation) expansion. By using the appropriate software, the length, frequency, density of rivers, valley profiles and river directions were obtained by raw numerical values on numerical topographical maps which are used to determine morphographic characteristics. Additionally, several tectonic belts were defined, depending on the length and bifurcation numbers and river length among certain altitude levels (Fig. 2-3, 2-6). Thus, the relationship between the development of the river basin and tectonics could be evaluated.
Natural Environment and Culture in the Mediterranean Region The Mediterranean Basin is located at the intersection of two major landmasses, Eurasia and Africa, which contributes to its cultural and high biodiversity. The greatest impacts have been deforestation, habitat fragmentation, intensive grazing and fires, and infrastructure development, especially on the coast, which have distinctly altered the landscape. In view of the valuable natural heritage there is a great need for weighing our ecological impact in order to achieve a balance between biodiversity conservation and human development and above all, how to maintain traditional rural livelihoods in a way that benefits biodiversity. This book synthesizes knowledge from many disciplines to throw some light on the unpredictability of forthcoming changes.