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Open Access Mitral Stenosis: A Review

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This article is Open Access under the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY-NC licence.

Mitral stenosis due to rheumatic heart disease is not common in the United States but is common in the developing world because rheumatic fever is still occurring frequently. Symptoms usually gradually occur in the young adult (most commonly female). Atrial fibrillation is a common accompanying rhythm in patients with proven mitral stenosis. The main physiologic event is a pressure gradient between the left atrium and the left ventricle. Diagnosis is relatively straight forward using physical exam and simple laboratory studies such as Chest X-Ray (elevated Left main stem bronchus, Double Density indicating enlarged left atrium) and ECG (P-Mitrale). Cardiac ultrasound confirms the clinical diagnosis (Doming of mitral valve in diastole, Hockey stick deformity of the anterior mitral valve leaflet, large left atrium, Doppler estimation of valve gradient). Mitral commisurotomy (surgical or Balloon) is warranted if the valve is pliable and not heavily calcified.
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Keywords: cardiac output; cardiac ultrasound; mitral annular calcification; rheumatic fever

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 January 2018

More about this publication?
  • Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications (CVIA) publishes focused articles and original clinical research that explore novel developments in cardiovascular disease, effective control and rehabilitation in cardiovascular disease, and promote cardiovascular innovations and applications for the betterment of public health globally. The journal publishes basic research that has clinical applicability in order to promote timely communication of the latest insights relating to coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, prevention of cardiovascular disease with a heavy emphasis on risk factor modification. Cardiovascular Innovations and Applications is the official journal of the Great Wall International Congress of Cardiology (GW-ICC). It aims to continue the work of the GW-ICC by providing a global scientific communication platform for cardiologists that bridges East and West.

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