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Analyzing the Risk of Drowning at Surf Beaches

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A clear understanding of the nature of risk in outdoor adventure tourism activities will assist the development of injury prevention strategies and so increase tourist safety. Using the example of surf beach drowning, a risk analysis process is outlined to identify the source and nature of hazards and related risks inherent to this setting. The process applies Haddon's Matrix to identify candidate risk factors related to either participants engaged in water-based activities or the surf beach environment. Causal risk factors are then distinguished using a risk balloon analogy. The final phase of the process assesses whether causal risk factors are modifiable for the purpose of developing injury prevention programs.


Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: September 1, 2006

More about this publication?
  • Tourism Review International is a peer-reviewed journal that advances excellence in all fields of tourism research, promotes high-level tourism knowledge, and nourishes cultural awareness in all sectors of the tourism industry by integrating industry and academic perspectives. Its international and interdisciplinary nature ensures that the needs of those interested in tourism are served by documenting industry practices, discussing tourism management and planning issues, providing a forum for primary research and critical examinations of previous research, and by chronicling changing tourism patterns and trends at the local, regional and global scale.

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