Scuba Diver Perceptions and Evaluations of Crowding Underwater

Authors: Szuster, Brian W.; Needham, Mark D.; McClure, Bixler P.

Source: Tourism in Marine Environments, Volume 7, Numbers 3-4, September 2011 , pp. 153-165(13)

Publisher: Cognizant Communication Corporation

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This article describes three exploratory investigations of dimensions influencing scuba diver perceptions of crowding in underwater settings. Five focus groups of five to eight divers each suggested that number, proximity, and clustering of divers were important crowding dimensions. A multiple sort procedure with 60 other divers revealed that number and proximity were most important. A survey of 101 additional divers confirmed that number and proximity of divers significantly influenced crowding, but the number of divers was the strongest determinant. Photographs were used to test crowding dimensions underwater. Although additional research is needed to confirm these findings, this study serves as a guide for future research on social aspects of dive site planning and management.


Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: September 1, 2011

More about this publication?
  • Tourism in Marine Environments is an interdisciplinary journal dealing with a variety of management issues in marine settings. It is a scientific journal that draws upon the expertise of academics and practitioners from various disciplines related to the marine environment, including tourism, marine science, geography, social sciences, psychology, environmental studies, economics, marketing, and many more.
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