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Kiss-1 Suppresses MMP-9 Expression by Activating p38 MAP Kinase in Human Stomach Cancer

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Abstract:

Kiss-1 has been identified as a putative metastasis suppressor gene in various human malignancies. However, there is little information about its possible role in gastric carcinoma. In this study, we determined whether the Kiss-1 gene negatively regulates MMP-9 expression. cDNA microarray technology was used to identify the genes associated with metastasis by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) in the gastric cancer cell lines, NUGC-3 and MKN-28. The levels of Kiss-1 RNA and protein were confirmed to be upregulated in HGF-treated gastric cancer cells. HGF induced Kiss-1 and MMP-9 production in a dose-dependent manner. In order to investigate roles of HGF signaling in tumor progression and metastasis, we measured effects of a specific MEK1 inhibitor (PD 098059) and a p38 kinase inhibitor (SB 203580) on HGF-mediated cell proliferation and MMP-9. Pretreatment with PD 098059 reduced MMP-9 and HGF-mediated cell proliferation, but increased Kiss-1 expression. In contrast, SB 203580 pretreatment enhanced MMP-9 and cell proliferation, but decreased Kiss-1 expression. Cotreatment of PD098059 and SB203580 increased the p38 phosphorylation stimulated by HGF. These results suggest that the HGF-mediated Kiss-1 overexpression is regulated mainly by the p38 activation and, furthermore, the activation of ERK might affect HGF-mediated Kiss-1 expression indirectly by the regulation of p38 kinase. Consistent with this result, p38 phosphorylation was strongly repressed by the knock-down of Kiss-1. Downregulation of Kiss-1 using Kiss-1 shRNA also increased in vitro cell invasion. In conclusion, Kiss-1 suppresses MMP-9 expression by activating the p38 MAP kinase signaling pathway.

Keywords: Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF); Kiss-1; Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9); Metastasis

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3727/096504009789954591

Publication date: February 1, 2009

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  • Formerly: Oncology Research Incorporating Anti-Cancer Drug Design
    Oncology Research Featuring Preclinical and Clincal Cancer Therapeutics publishes research of the highest quality that contributes to an understanding of cancer in areas of molecular biology, cell biology, biochemistry, biophysics, genetics, biology, endocrinology, and immunology, as well as studies on the mechanism of action of carcinogens and therapeutic agents, reports dealing with cancer prevention and epidemiology, and clinical trials delineating effective new therapeutic regimens.
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