ECTO-NOX Target for the Anticancer Isoflavene Phenoxodiol
Phenoxodiol, a synthetic isoflavene with clinical efficacy in the management of ovarian and other forms of human cancer, blocked the activity of a cancer-specific and growth-related cell surface ECTO-NOX protein with both oxidative (hydroquinone) and protein disulfide–thiol interchange activity designated tNOX. Purified recombinant tNOX bound phenoxodiol with high affinity (K d of 50 nM). The tNOX protein appeared to be both necessary and sufficient for the cancer-specific cytotoxicity of phenoxodiol. Growth inhibition of fibroblasts from embryos of mice expressing a tNOX transgene, but not from wild-type mice, was inhibited by phenoxodiol followed by apoptosis. Both the oxidative and protein disulfide–thiol interchange activities that alternate to generate the complex set of oscillations with a period length of 22 min (24 min for the constitutive counterpart CNOX) that characterize ECTO-NOX proteins respond to phenoxodiol. Oxidation of NADH or reduced coenzyme Q10 was rapidly blocked by phenoxodiol. In contrast, the protein disulfide–thiol interchange activity measured either by the restoration of activity to scrambled and inactive RNase or from the cleavage of dithiodipyridine (EC50 of 50 nM) was inhibited progressively over an interval of 60 min that spanned three cycles of activity. Inhibition of the latter paralleled the inhibition of cell enlargement and the consequent inability of inhibited cells to initiate traverse of the cell cycle. Activities of constitutive ECTO-NOX (CNOX) forms of either cancer or noncancer cells were unaffected by phenoxodiol to help explain how the cytotoxic effects of phenoxodiol may be restricted to cancer cells.
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Document Type: Research Article
Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, 40227 Taiwan, Republic of China
Department of Foods and Nutrition, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA
Publication date: 2006-07-01
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