Chemotherapy Influences Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase (eNOS) Activity on 3D Breast Cancer Cell Line
Abstract:Multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS) are three-dimensional structural forms of tumors grown in vitro in the laboratory. In this study, the aim was to determine the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expressions on MTS in response to treatment with the commonly used anti-cancer drugs Doxorubicin and Docetaxel. The spheroids were generated using the “liquid overlay” technique. The distribution of both iNOS and eNOS was detected using indirect immunohistochemistry, while the expression of both iNOS and eNOS was measured using Western blots. Additionally, S-phase analysis using 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was done on the MTS after treatment with doxorubicin, docetaxel, and a combination of the two. The Griess method was used to measure nitric oxide (NO) production in the cells. An increase in iNOS immunoreactivity and a decrease in eNOS immunoreactivity were observed after doxorubicin treatment, when compared with the other groups. Furthermore, upregulation of iNOS and downregulation of eNOS were detected in doxorubicin-treated cells using Western blotting. Insignificant iNOS expression was observed in all of the groups, and it was particularly low in the control and drug combination groups. NO production was also found to be significantly high after docetaxel treatment, and cell proliferation decreased after doxorubicin treatment. In conclusion, chemotherapy influences NOS activity differently with the presence of different drugs. The results with iNOS show that doxorubicin is a more effective drug than docetaxel, and a drug combination may play a helpful role in the suppression of tumorigenicity and cancer metastasis. Interestingly, eNOS expression increased after the addition of both docetaxel and the drug combination, and it was found to negatively correlate with the histological grade of the tumor. Therefore, analyzing the expression of both iNOS and eNOS might be very useful for targeting the treatment of breast carcinoma and obtaining better information on prognosis.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: 1: *Department of Histology and Embryology, Ege University School of Medicine, TR-35100 Izmir, Turkey 2: Department of Histology and Embryology, Istanbul University School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey 3: Department of Medical Biology, Ege University School of Medicine, TR-35100 Izmir, Turkey 4: Department of Histology and Embryology, Ege University School of Medicine, TR-35100 Izmir, Turkey 5: Department of Histology and Embryology, Celal Bayar University School of Medicine, TR-45030 Manisa, Turkey 6: Department of Hematology, Karadeniz Technical University School of Medicine, Trabzon, Turkey
Publication date: April 1, 2006
- Formerly: Oncology Research Incorporating Anti-Cancer Drug Design
Oncology Research Featuring Preclinical and Clincal Cancer Therapeutics publishes research of the highest quality that contributes to an understanding of cancer in areas of molecular biology, cell biology, biochemistry, biophysics, genetics, biology, endocrinology, and immunology, as well as studies on the mechanism of action of carcinogens and therapeutic agents, reports dealing with cancer prevention and epidemiology, and clinical trials delineating effective new therapeutic regimens.