Design of biomimetic vascular grafts with magnetic endothelial patterning
Authors: Delphine Fayol, Catherine Le Visage, Julia Ino, Florence Gazeau, Didier Letourneur, Claire Wilhelm
Source: Cell Transplantation
Publisher: Cognizant Communication Corporation
Abstract:The development of small diameter vascular grafts with a controlled pluricellular organization is still needed for vascular tissue engineering. Here, we describe a technological approach combining a tubular scaffold and magnetically labeled cells to create a pluricellular and organized vascular graft, the endothelialization of which could be monitored by MRI prior to transplantation. A novel type of scaffold was developed with a tubular geometry and a porous bulk structure enabling the seeding of cells in the scaffold pores. A homogeneous distribution of human mesenchymal stem cells in the macroporous structure was obtained by seeding the freeze-dried scaffold with the cell suspension. The efficient covering of the luminal surface of the tube was then made possible thanks to the implementation of a magnetic-based patterning technique. Human endothelial cells or endothelial progenitors were magnetically labeled with iron oxide nanoparticles and successfully attracted to the 2 mm lumen where they attached and formed a continuous endothelium. The combination of imaging modalities (fluorescence imaging, histology, and 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)) evidenced the integrity of the vascular construct. In particular, the observation of different cell organisations in a vascular scaffold within the range of resolution of single cells by 4.7 T MRI is reported.
Appeared or available online: January 2, 2013