Angiogenesis Following Cell Injection Is Induced by an Excess Inflammatory Response Coordinated by Bone Marrow Cells
Abstract:The aim of this study was to identify novel angiogenic mechanisms underlying the regenerative process. To that end, interactions between adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) and bone marrow cells (BMCs) were initially investigated using real-time fluorescence optical imaging. To monitor cell behavior in mice, we injected green fluorescent protein-positive (GFP+) BMCs into the tail vein and injected PKH26-labeled ASCs behind the ears. Angiogenesis and inflammation were observed at these sites via an optical imaging probe. Injected GFP+ BMCs migrated from the blood vessels into the tissues surrounding the ASC injection sites. Many of the migrating GFP+ BMCs discovered at the ASC injection sites were inflammatory cells, including Gr-1+, CD11b+, and F4/80+ cells. ASCs cocultured with inflammatory cells secreted increased levels of chemokines such as macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, keratinocyte-derived chemokines, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1. Similarly, these ASCs secreted increased levels of angiogenic growth factors such as hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. However, when anti-CXC chemokine receptor type 4 antibody was injected at regular intervals, the migration of GFP+ BMCs (especially Gr-1+ and CD11b+ cells) to ASC injection sites was inhibited, as was angiogenesis. The collective influence of the injected ASCs and BMC-derived inflammatory cells promoted acute inflammation and angiogenesis. Together, the results suggest that the outcome of cell-based angiogenic therapy is influenced not only by the injected cells but also by the effect of intrinsic inflammatory cells.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: 2013-12-23
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