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Open Access Angiogenesis Following Cell Injection Is Induced by an Excess Inflammatory Response Coordinated by Bone Marrow Cells

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The aim of this study was to identify novel angiogenic mechanisms underlying the regenerative process. To that end, interactions between adipose tissue-derived stromal cells (ASCs) and bone marrow cells (BMCs) were initially investigated using real-time fluorescence optical imaging. To monitor cell behavior in mice, we injected green fluorescent protein-positive (GFP+) BMCs into the tail vein and injected PKH26-labeled ASCs behind the ears. Angiogenesis and inflammation were observed at these sites via an optical imaging probe. Injected GFP+ BMCs migrated from the blood vessels into the tissues surrounding the ASC injection sites. Many of the migrating GFP+ BMCs discovered at the ASC injection sites were inflammatory cells, including Gr-1+, CD11b+, and F4/80+ cells. ASCs cocultured with inflammatory cells secreted increased levels of chemokines such as macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, MIP-1β, keratinocyte-derived chemokines, and monocyte chemotactic protein 1. Similarly, these ASCs secreted increased levels of angiogenic growth factors such as hepatocyte growth factor and vascular endothelial growth factor. However, when anti-CXC chemokine receptor type 4 antibody was injected at regular intervals, the migration of GFP+ BMCs (especially Gr-1+ and CD11b+ cells) to ASC injection sites was inhibited, as was angiogenesis. The collective influence of the injected ASCs and BMC-derived inflammatory cells promoted acute inflammation and angiogenesis. Together, the results suggest that the outcome of cell-based angiogenic therapy is influenced not only by the injected cells but also by the effect of intrinsic inflammatory cells.

Keywords: Adipose tissue-derived stromal cells; Angiogenesis; CXCR4; Imaging; Inflammation

Document Type: Research Article


Publication date: 2013-12-23

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.
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