Human Adult Periodontal Ligament-Derived Cells Integrate and Differentiate After Implantation Into the Adult Mammalian Brain
Abstract:Previous studies suggest that neural crest (NC)-derived stem cells may reside in NC derivatives including the human periodontal ligament (hPDL). The isolation and manipulation of autologous NC-derived cells could be an accessible source of adult neural stem cells for their use in cell replacement and gene transfer to the diseased central nervous system. In this study, we examined the expression of NC markers and neural differentiation potential of hPDL-derived cells both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro we found that hPDL-derived cells expressed stem cell markers (Oct3/4, Nestin, Sox2, and Musashi-1) and a subset of NC cell markers (Slug, p75NTR, Twist, and Sox9). hPDL-derived cells differentiated into neural-like cells based on cellular morphology and neural marker expression (TUJ1, MAP2, MAP1b, GAD65/67, GABA, NeuN, ChAT, GAT1, synaptophysin, GFAP, NG2, and O4). In vivo, hPDL-derived cells survive, migrate, and give rise to DCX+, NF-M+, GABA+, GFAP+, and NG2+ cells after grafting the adult mouse brain. Some of the grafted hPDL-derived cells were located in stem cell niches such as the ventricular epithelium and the subventricular zone of the anterolateral ventricle wall as well as in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Thus, the hPDL contains stem cells that originate from the NC and can differentiate into neural cells. The engraftment and differentiation properties of hPDL-derived cells in the adult brain indicate that they are a potential stem cell source to be used in neuroregenerative and/or neurotrophic medicine.
Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: November 5, 2013
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