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Open Access Roles of Islet Toll-Like Receptors in Pig to Mouse Islet Xenotransplantation

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Although innate immunity plays important roles in xenograft rejection, there have been few studies on the role of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in xenotransplantation. Furthermore, most studies focused on the recipient’s TLRs. Therefore, we investigated whether TLRs in porcine islets can contribute to islet xenograft rejection. Adult porcine islets were isolated and stimulated by polyinosinic/polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Both poly I:C and LPS stimulation in porcine islets induced expression of chemokines (RANTES, MCP-1, IP-10, and IL-8), cytokines (IL-6 and type I interferons), and adhesion molecules (VCAM-1 and ICAM-1). Porcine islet supernatants stimulated by TLR agonists induced chemotaxis of human leukocytes. They also induced procoagulant activation (tissue factor and fgl-2). However, TLR stimulation did not influence insulin secretion. When porcine MyD88 was knocked down using shRNA lentivirus, TLR-mediated induction of proinflammatory mediators and procoagulants was attenuated. When LPS was injected to MyD88 or TLR4 knockout mice after porcine islet transplantation, LPS stimulation on donor islets interfered with islet xenograft tolerance induction by anti-CD154 antibodies. Inflammatory cell infiltration and expression of proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines in islet xenografts also increased. In conclusion, TLR activation in porcine islets induced both a proinflammatory and procoagulant response and thereby contributed to xenograft rejection.

Keywords: Islet transplantation; Rejection; Toll-like receptors (TLRs); Xenotransplantation

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: Transplantation Center, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea

Publication date: 2013-09-11

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.
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