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Open Access Administration of a Negative Vaccination Induces Hyporesponsiveness to Islet Allografts

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As a result of less than optimal outcomes the use of islet allografts as a standard insulin replacement therapy is limited to adults with a history of extreme glucose dysregulation and hypoglycemia unawareness. In this study, we examined the use of prophylactic immunotherapy to prevent islet allograft rejection in the absence of antirejection drugs. Our protocol to achieve allograft acceptance used a negative vaccination strategy that is comprised of apoptotic donor cells delivered in Incomplete Freund’s Adjuvant (IFA) 1 week prior to islet transplantation. The goal of this new protocol is to elicit hyporesponsiveness to alloantigen prior to islet transplantation. First, we examined our protocol without islet allograft transplants and determined that the negative vaccination was not globally immunosuppressive or immunostimulatory. Islet allograft experiments using fully MHC-mismatched islet donors and recipients demonstrated that the negative vaccination strategy induced long-term islet allograft acceptance. Upon rechallenge with alloantigen, the negative vaccination protocol successfully achieved hyporesponsiveness. In addition, the microenvironment at the site of the tolerant allograft revealed a decrease in proinflammatory mediators (IFN-γ, TNF-α) and an increase in the anti-inflammatory mediator IL-10, as well as increased expression of the master regulator of T-regulatory cells, FOXP3. Our data suggest that pretreating allograft recipients with apoptotic donor alloantigen delivered in IFA induced long-term islet allograft acceptance and glycemic control by introducing alloantigen to the recipient immune system in a nonimmunostimulatory manner prior to transplant.
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Keywords: Allograft acceptance; Hyporesponsiveness; Islet transplantation; Negative vaccination

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Division of Immunogenetics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA

Publication date: 15 July 2013

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.

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