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Open Access Differentiation of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells Into Aggregates of Insulin-Producing Cells Through the Overexpression of Pancreatic and Duodenal Homeobox Gene-1

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Abstract:

The pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene 1 (Pdx-1) plays a key role in normal pancreas development and is required for maintaining the normal function of islets. In this study, we examined whether human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs) could differentiate into insulin-producing cells by exogenously expressed Pdx-1. hASCs were infected with recombinant adenovirus encoding the mouse Pdx-1 gene and differentiated under high-glucose conditions. Insulin transcript levels and the expression of key transcription factors required for pancreatic development including FoxA2, Nkx2.2, and NeuroD were significantly increased by exogenous Pdx-1 overexpression. The expression of Nkx6.1 was found only in Pdx-1-induced hASCs. In addition to transcripts for transcription factors involved in pancreatic development, transcripts for the GLP-1 receptor, glucokinase, and glucose transporter, which are required for maintaining the function of pancreatic β-cells, were observed only in Pdx-1-induced hASCs. Pdx-1-induced hASCs exhibited insulin secretion in response to glucose challenge in vitro. When Pdx-1-induced hASCs were transplanted into streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, they reduced blood glucose levels, although they did not restore normoglycemia. These results demonstrate that the expression of exogenous Pdx-1 is sufficient to induce pancreatic differentiation in vitro but does not induce the fully functional, mature insulin-producing cells that are required for restoring normoglycemia in vivo.

Keywords: Differentiation; Human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hASCs); Insulin-producing cells; Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox gene (Pdx-1)

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/096368912X657215

Affiliations: Laboratory of Stem Cell Biology and Cell Therapy, Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea

Publication date: 2013-06-01

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.
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