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Open Access Mesenchymal Stem Cell Insights: Prospects in Hematological Transplantation

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Abstract:

Adult stem cells have been proven to possess tremendous potential in the treatment of hematological disorders, possibly in transplantation. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous group of cells in culture, with hypoimmunogenic character to avoid alloreactive T-cell recognition as well as inhibition of T-cell proliferation. Numerous experimental findings have shown that MSCs also possess the ability to promote engraftment of donor cells and to accelerate the speed of hematological recovery. Despite that the exact mechanism remains unclear, the therapeutic ability of MSCs on hematologic transplantation have been tested in preclinical trials. Based on encouraging preliminary findings, MSCs might become a potentially efficacious tool in the therapeutic options available to treat and cure hematological malignancies and nonmalignant disorders. The molecular mechanisms behind the real efficacy of MSCs on promoting engraftment and accelerating hematological recovery are awaiting clarification. It is hypothesized that direct cell-to-cell contact, paracrine factors, extracellular matrix scaffold, BM homing capability, and endogenous metabolites of immunologic and nonimmunologic elements are involved in the interactions between MSCs and HSCs. This review focuses on recent experimental and clinical findings related to MSCs, highlighting their roles in promoting engraftment, hematopoietic recovery, and GvHD/graft rejection prevention after HSCT, discussing the potential clinical applications of MSC-based treatment strategies in the context of hematological transplantation.

Keywords: Bone marrow (BM); Hematopoiesis; Hematopoietic niche; Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs); Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)

Document Type: Research Article

DOI: https://doi.org/10.3727/096368912X655172

Affiliations: Department of Life Science, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan, ROC

Publication date: 2013-04-01

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.
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