Electroacupuncture Promotes the Differentiation of Transplanted Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Overexpressing TrkC Into Neuron-Like Cells in Transected Spinal Cord of Rats
Our previous study indicated that electroacupuncture (EA) could increase neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) levels in the injured spinal cord, stimulate the differentiation of transplanted bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and improve functional recovery in the injured spinal cord of rats.
However, the number of neuron-like cells derived from the MSCs is limited. It is known that NT-3 promotes the survival and differentiation of neurons by preferentially binding to its receptor TrkC. In this study, we attempted to transplant TrkC gene-modified MSCs (TrkC-MSCs) into the spinal
cord with transection to investigate whether EA treatment could promote NT-3 secretion in the injured spinal cord and to determine whether increased NT-3 could further enhance transplanted MSCs overexpressing TrkC to differentiate into neuron-like cells, resulting in increased axonal regeneration
and functional improvement in the injured spinal cord. Our results showed that EA increased NT-3 levels; furthermore, it promoted neuron-phenotype differentiation, synaptogenesis, and myelin formation of transplanted TrkC-MSCs. In addition, TrkC-MSC transplantation combined with EA (the TrkC-MSCs
+ EA group) treatment promoted the growth of the descending BDA-labeled corticospinal tracts (CSTs) and 5-HT-positive axonal regeneration across the lesion site into the caudal cord. In addition, the conduction of cortical motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and hindlimb locomotor function increased
as compared to controls (treated with the LacZ-MSCs, TrkC-MSCs, and LacZ-MSCs + EA groups). In the TrkC-MSCs + EA group, the injured spinal cord also showed upregulated expression of the proneurogenic factors laminin and GAP-43 and downregulated GFAP and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs),
major inhibitors of axonal growth. Together, our data suggest that TrkC-MSC transplantation combined with EA treatment spinal cord injury not only increased MSC survival and differentiation into neuron-like cells but also promoted CST regeneration across injured sites to the caudal cord and
functional improvement, perhaps due to increase of NT-3 levels, upregulation of laminin and GAP-43, and downregulation of GFAP and CSPG proteins.
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Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.
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