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Open Access Transplantation of Osteogenically Differentiated Mouse iPS Cells for Bone Repair

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Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are a type of undifferentiated cell that can be obtained from differentiated cells and have the pluripotent potential to differentiate into the musculoskeletal system, the myocardium, vascular endothelial cells, neurons, and hepatocytes. We therefore cultured mouse iPS cells in a DMEM containing 15% FBS, 10−7 M dexamethasone, 10 mM β-glycerophosphate, and 50 μg/ml ascorbic acid for 3 weeks, in order to induce bone differentiation, and studied the expression of the bone differentiation markers Runx2 and osteocalcin using RT-PCR in a time-dependent manner. Osteocalcin, a bone differentiation marker in bone formation, exhibited the highest expression in the third week. In addition, the deposition of calcium nodules was observed using Alizarin red S staining. iPS cells cultured for bone differentiation were transplanted into severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice, and the osteogenic potential exhibited after 4 weeks was studied. When bone differentiation-induced iPS cells were transplanted into SCID mice, bone formation was confirmed in soft X-ray images and tissue specimens. However, teratoma formation was confirmed in 20% of the transplanted models. When mouse iPS cells were treated with irradiation of 2 Gray (Gy) prior to transplantation, teratoma formation was inhibited. When mouse iPS cells treated in a likewise manner were xenotransplanted into rats, bone formation was confirmed but teratoma formation was not observed. It is believed that irradiation before transplantation is an effective way to inhibit teratoma formation.

Keywords: Bone differentiation; Induced pulripotent stem (iPS) cells; Osteogenic potential

Document Type: Research Article


Affiliations: Department of Orthopeadic Surgery, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama, Japan

Publication date: 2012-02-01

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  • Cell Transplantation publishes original, peer-reviewed research and review articles on the subject of cell transplantation and its application to human diseases. To ensure high-quality contributions from all areas of transplantation, separate section editors and editorial boards have been established. Articles deal with a wide range of topics including physiological, medical, preclinical, tissue engineering, and device-oriented aspects of transplantation of nervous system, endocrine, growth factor-secreting, bone marrow, epithelial, endothelial, and genetically engineered cells, among others. Basic clinical studies and immunological research papers are also featured. To provide complete coverage of this revolutionary field, Cell Transplantation will report on relevant technological advances, and ethical and regulatory considerations of cell transplants. Cell Transplantation is now an Open Access journal starting with volume 18 in 2009, and therefore there will be an inexpensive publication charge, which is dependent on the number of pages, in addition to the charge for color figures. This will allow work to be disseminated to a wider audience and also entitle the corresponding author to a free PDF, as well as prepublication of an unedited version of the manuscript.
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