Human Menstrual Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Cells as a Cell Source of Rapid and Efficient Nuclear Reprogramming
Abstract:Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were originally generated by forced ectopic expression of four transcription factors genes—OCT4, KLF4, SOX2, and c-MYC—in fibroblasts. However, the efficiency of iPSCs obtention is extremely low, and reprogramming takes about 20 days. We reasoned that adult cells showing basal expression of core embryonic stem (ES) cell regulator genes could be a better cell source for reprogramming. Menstrual blood-derived mesenchymal cells (MBMCs) are multipotent cells that show detectable levels of some of the core ES cells regulators. The aim of this study was to determine whether reprogramming efficiency could be increased by using MBMCs as a cell source to generate iPSCs. MBMCs were transduced with recombinant retroviruses expressing the coding regions of OCT4, SOX2, and KLF4 genes. Cells with high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio can be detected about 5 days of posttransduction, and colonies of typical ES-like cells begun to appear after 7 days. At day 15, colonies were picked up and expanded for characterization. Most of the clones were morphologically identical to ES cells and positive at the mRNA and protein levels for all pluripotency markers tested. The clones are capable of forming embryoid bodies and to differentiate in vitro into cells of the three germ cell layers. Our results show that the reprogramming was faster and with efficiency around 2‐5%, even in the absence of ectopic expression of c-MYC. To date, this is the first study showing MBMCs as a cell source for nuclear reprogramming.
Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Instituto de Biofísica Carlos Chagas Filho, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Publication date: 2012-10-01
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